It has been a long time since we crossed paths. Being a dark energy kind of makes you feel like an individual, doesn't it. Have you heard the latest? The Big Bounce is just another theory how the universe started prior to the Big Bang. I heard we're going to get a jump on a new Big Bang. I doubt it, because I don't feel anymore energetic than I felt yesterday. The new Universe expanded and cooled. Within 300,000 years, it dropped 3,000 degrees Celsius. The protons and electrons eventually became hydrogen and helium atoms. I follow the de-facto explanation in chronological order, Planck epoch, Grand unification epoch, Electroweak epoch, Inflationary epoch, Reheating, and Baryogenesis stages. The Plank epoch had four forces such as electromageticism, weak nuclear forces, strong nuclear forces and gravitation. The second stage, Grand unification epoch, gravity would have separated gauge interactions epoch. The third stage, electroweak epoch, starts up cosmic inflation. The particle interaction beings W and Z Bosons and Higgs bosons. The fourth stage of cosmic inflation, inflationary epoch is when the universe has a phase where there is rapidly expanding homogenous and isotropic particles. There are some visual quarks and hyperons that decay very fast. This is the first time dark energy is present and existed for 9 billion years. Afterwards, the heating process is filled with quarks, radiation, neutrinos, and electrons. In the Baryogenesis stage, there are more baryons than anti-baryons.
Then after it was filled with quark-gluon plasma after the cosmic inflation ends; it proceeds to the second generation. In chronological order, it goes Supersymmetry breaking, Quark epoch, Hadron epoch, Lepton epoch, Photon epoch and Nucleosynthesis stages happen at the same time, but nucleosynthesis was 20 minutes. Supersymmetry is broken in energy as low as 1 TeV, electroweak symmetry scale. The particles and super partners are no longer equal in this stage. Secondly, in the quark stage the particles acquire a mass (Higgs mechanism), because it has a vacuum expectation value. In the hadron epoch stage, the quarks form hardon. Protons and neutrons can form now. In the Lepton epoch, the hardons and anti-hardons destroy one another forming leptons and anti-leptons. The temperature falls so due to annihilation reactions, there are very few leptons. This goes on between the first 1 – 10 seconds. The Photon epoch is where the universe is dominated by photons and this goes on between 10 second, and 380,000 years. Necleosynthesis happens when the atomic nuclei, protons, and neutrons combine for 17 minutes before the temperature of the universe falls below fusion temperature.
Thirdly, 70,000 years after the Big Bang, atomic nuclei and photons are the same percentage. The cold dark matter can form and not be wiped out by free-streaming radiation.
Fourthly, after 377,000 years, atoms with hydrogen and helium form. The electrons are neutral, because the electrons and ions mix. All the atoms are now neutrons, called recombination) and the protons can now go anywhere in the Universe. It has cosmic microwave background radiation After this happens, there is ionized plasma from 150 million to a billion years. Metal free stars begin to form. Fifth, after this between 150 million to 1 billion years, Quasars are formed due to reionization. Sixthly, after reionization, metal-free stars develop. Seventh, after stars develop, then galaxies form. Afterwards, galaxies develop, and at the same time, stars with poor metal are formed early in this stage. At later stages, metal rich stars are formed.
Fifth, the universe is filled with protons and they expanded the universe when the protons turned into neutrons in the beginning. Now-a-days, the dark energy expanded the Universe, because the energy is speeding up. It has the cosmological constant which is a major influence. It has some gravity that is has attractive forces and is speed up by Dark Matter’s repulsion. Farther out, the gravity weakens, yet the dark energy increases. Dark energy became dominate billions of years ago. It’s been accelerating too.
Sixth, the Milky Way galaxy formed when some satellite galaxy clusters formed and made the galaxy bulge while other satellite galaxies had a rapidly rotating disc. There is a disc present in the present Milky Way leading to this theory. Near the beginning of a billion years, there were only 1,500 galaxies. The oldest stars started out in the galactic halo. The stellar population hidden with dust clouds. Near the present, the Milky Way is merging with the Canis Major dwarf galaxy only 25,000 light years from the solar system. Our galaxy became apart of the Virgo Supercluster like the Andromeda galaxies became apart of our neighborhood. It is made up of our local group; then it is made up of M66 Group (35 billion ly), Draco Group (40 billion ly), M81 Group (11 billion ly), Leo1 (38 billion ly), M101 Group (24 billion ly), and Ursa Major Galaxies (55 billion ly). Our solar system is in a local bubble that shields us from radiation. The local fluff cloud is 50,000 years from entering the bubble which might threaten life. The Universe evolved as much we're going to evolve billions of years ago and now it grows in size. Goodbye dear friend, until next we meet. I feel like I have always felt for billions of years; pretty healthy. I feel like Q on Star Trek – The Next Generation; pretty darn bored.