n this paper, I will give details on the Big Crunch lead to a Big Bang, my choice of the future of the universe. I will fit my description with the 1999 discovery of dark energy.
Our future might change. Our solar system will move out of the local bubble when a Local fluff (magnetic cloud) crashes into ours. That means radiation will overcome the Solar wind and enter the solar system. At the same time the Sun burns all it's hydrogen and helium in the next 7 billion years, the Andromeda galaxy will crash into our galaxy to form a new one. Right now, it is 2 million light years away. This means a new galaxy, and not many damaged stars and planets. The increased stirring of the clash will cause the stars to die out within the millions of years the collision occurs. (guardian.co.uk, 2009)
Galaxies will develop stars for 20 - 30 million years and then the nebula gas will be depleted so the least massive red dwarfs like Proxima Centauri will still be around. About 10 trillion years from now red dwarfs about 1/4 to 1/10 the mass of the sun will be dead. In 100 trillion years the last red dwarfs in the universe will die out and become black dwarfs. The other two corpses will be black holes and neutron stars. There will still be planets, comets, and asteroids around. The protons will dissolved in 100 trillion, trillion, trillion years. The black holes will decay via a the quantum tunneling process. From the very beginning, a black hole takes a million billion trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion years to burn out. The temperature of the universe would be 1 trillionth a degree above absolute zero. (Universe and Beyond, pp 149- 150, 2006)
I say that the outcome would be the Big Bounce, because since 1998, it is said that the universe would collapse and then re-expand. During the collapse, the big crunch is used half way. The Big Crunch says that the universe will collapse into a big singularity. Quantum gravity takes effect. Space reverses in size. There is a black hole singularity involved at the absolute end. This is because the speed will never exceed escape velocity and gravity will cause contraction. Until then dark energy causes the acceleration. They say that the Universe has 10 billion years before collapsing. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory can see this by observing thousands of far out supernovae to get rate of expansion of the Universe. They also discovered that if dark energy was positive, this would tear apart all objects so for that reason alone, dark energy is negative. Then the universe will re-span in the Big Bounce. (wikipedia, 2010) (UniverseToday.com, 2010)
The Big Bounce happens when density is close to infinity, then the quantum foam changes. Afterwards, the gravity would be so incredible that the Universe rebounds resulting in a branch. The loop quantum gravity would create the Big Bang, because there would be zero volume and infinite energy. New evidence shows a Big Crunch singularity would disagree with the second law of thermodynamics so the Universe death would result in a new Big Bang after a Big Bounce. (wikipedia, 2010)(UniverseToday.com, 2010)
My personal reaction is that a Big Rip will contract anyway and a Big Freeze only shows temperature which is going to be one-trillionth above absolute zero at the very end in all scenarios. I agree that the Big Crunch is obsolete due to the discovery of dark energy and a Big Bounce should take its place. The Big Freeze, no matter how popular, says the Universe is a few degrees above zero and won't say anything about events leading to a new Big Bang. I can't believe that after the Big Freeze, the Universe won't reemerge, because God always creates new Big Bang eventually. Something unexplainable always happens and leads to a Big Bounce to jump start the Big Bang. I was saddened by the clash with the Andromeda galaxy, because I feel sorry for the last of civilizations. The exterrestrials will have to build cities in gigantic space stations far away from any star system to prevent being caught in supernovas.
This paper gave details on the Big Crunch lead to a Big Bang, because of the discovery of dark energy. The paper also explained the Milky Way collision with the Andromeda galaxy.
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scientists thought" Retrieved June 4, 2010, from Guardian.co.uk website
Anonymous. (2010). Big Bounce
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Villanueva, J.C. (2010). Big Bounce
Retrieved June 3, 2010, from UniverseToday website
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